GEVARAM (Heb. גְּבַרְעָם; "the People Overcomes"), kibbutz in the southern coastal plain of Israel, S. of Ashkelon, affiliated with Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad, founded in 1942. The settlers, mainly pioneers from Slovakia, Austria, Holland, and Germany, previously maintained a transitory camp at kefar sava as hired agricultural workers. They initially suffered from lack of water, but by deep drilling a rich groundwater table was discovered sufficient for local needs and to supply other settlements. The siege of the Egyptian army during the War of Independence was lifted in Operation Ten Plagues (October 1948). Gevaram's economy was based on intensive and largely irrigated farming, dairy cattle, and a metal factory. Its population was 240 in 1968 and 311 in 2002. (Efraim Orni) GEVAT GEVAT (Heb. גְּבַת), kibbutz in northern Israel, in the jezreel valley , at the foot of the nazareth Hills, affiliated with Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad. It was founded in 1926 by pioneers from Pinsk, Poland. The kibbutz participated in the draining of the Jezreel Valley swamps. With the split in Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad in 1951–52, some of its members established a separate kibbutz, Yifat, further east. In 1968 Gevat had 625 inhabitants and its economy was based on field crops and dairy cattle. The kibbutz also produced plastic and rubber products. In 2002 its population was 658. Gevat is a historical name, mentioned by Eusebius (Onom. 70:9ff.) in its Aramaic form Gabata. (Efraim Orni)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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